Buyer-driven greening? Cargo-owners and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping
Poulsen, René Taudal, Stefano Ponte and Jane Lister. “Buyer-driven greening? Cargo-owners and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping.” Geoforum. 68. (2016): 57-68.
This study examines the relationship between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. The findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear and enforceable global regulation with strong alignment between regulatory and voluntary sustainability initiatives.